Seasonal variations in agricultural roles

Seasonality is defined as the cyclical shift in food supply and agricultural labour caused by climate fluctuations in the rural areas of LDCs (LDC). In seasonal climates, a poor, lean, or slack season, also known as the saudure (French for the intersection of two agricultural cycles), occurs for 2–3 months every year, frequently coinciding with rains, causing cyclical stress on rural communities’ health and nutrition.

Agro Climatic seasonality is important among people that practices subsistence agriculture and hunter-gatherers, as well as in other agricultural systems where background food security is low, such as locations where commercial crops are mostly cultivated. Seasonal variation plays a very important role when it comes to agriculture.

Changes in rainfall, temperature, wind exposure, and relative humidity, in relation to the water retention capacity of the soil, cause a cyclical shift in water balance, which may limit the period for plant development to certain times of the year. The proportion of dry months in a year, known as absolute seasonality, can range from 0 (enough rain all year) to 1.

If the vegetative cycle of corn (maize) is taken into account (120 days), the following places in the world can be classified: Low seasonality occurs when the vegetative season lasts more than 200 days each year and two harvests are feasible; moderate seasonality occurs when the vegetative season lasts 120–200 days and one to two maize harvests are possible.

Crops Definition

A crop is a large-scale plant that is farmed or grown. Crops are often grown to be commercially traded. In other words, a crop is any plant that is widely farmed and harvested for profit.

Crop Varieties

India grows two primary types of crops. To be specific, Kharif and Rabi Let’s have a look at some of these.

Kharif cropping

Because the season corresponds with the beginning of autumn or winter, the name “Kharif” is Arabic for autumn. Because these crops are grown during the monsoon season, the Kharif crop is also known as the monsoon crop. The Kharif season varies by state, although it normally lasts from June through September.

1) Rice

As previously stated, India is the world’s second-largest producer of rice, after only China. India accounts for around 20% of global rice output. It is, without a doubt, the most significant agricultural crop grown in the country. Rice is a staple meal in India, and its cultivation is extensive.

Rice thrives in locations with considerable rainfall. It requires average temperatures of 25°C and a minimum rainfall of 100 cm. It has historically been produced in flooded rice paddy areas. The country’s largest rice-producing areas are the northeast plains and coastal areas.

2) Maize

Maize is India’s third most significant grain crop, after rice and wheat. It accounts for almost one-tenth of India’s overall agricultural output. Maize cultivation is concentrated in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Temperatures ranging from 21°C to 27°C and rainfall ranging from 50 cm to 75 cm are required.

Rabi crops

Spring is the Arabic equivalent of the word “Rabi.” The term comes from the fact that these crops are harvested in the spring. Rabi season typically begins in November and lasts until March or April. Since the monsoon season has ended by November, the Rabi crop is mostly grown by irrigation. In fact, unseasonal rains in November or December can wreak havoc on the crop. Farmers plant the seeds in early October, anticipating a spring harvest. Wheat, barley, mustard, and green peas are among the most important rabi crops grown in India.

1) Wheat

India is the world’s second-largest wheat producer. Its agricultural revenue is heavily dependent on the rabi harvest. Wheat is a staple diet for Indians, particularly in northern India.

During the growing season, wheat requires temperatures ranging from 14°C to 18°C.Rainfall of around 50 cm to 90 cm is good. Wheat, on the other hand, demands strong sunlight and somewhat warmer temperatures during the harvesting season in the spring. Uttar Pradesh is India’s leading wheat-growing state, followed by Punjab and Haryana.

2) Mustard

Mustard is a member of the “Cruciferae” family. Because the oil derived from mustard is edible, we use mustard in cooking in India. It requires a subtropical environment that is dry and chilly to flourish. Mustard grows best at temperatures ranging from 10°C to 25°C. Rajasthan has the highest mustard production in India.

Farmers report considerable fluctuations in the timing and pattern of precipitation within seasons, including:

• More erratic rainfall, falling at inconvenient times both in and out of season;

• During the rainy season, extreme storms and extremely heavy rainfall are interspersed by extended dry intervals.

• In many locations, the onset of the rainy season is becoming more unpredictable;

• Short or transitory second rainy seasons are getting stronger than usual or have vanished entirely.

Growth and the environment

In healthy children, seasonal fluctuations in growth rates have been documented. Palmer14 discovered that growth rates for height are higher in the spring and summer, whereas rates of weight gain are higher in the fall (autumn) and winter. Weight gain is typically greatest between September and November, and can be up to five times that of the minimum months of March to May.15 Between September and February, almost two-thirds of the annual weight gain occurs.

About Kisaan Helpline

Kisaan helpline online portal providing agriculture world service means Indian crop information of rabi (wheat, garlic, chickpea, cumin, onion, mustard, rabi vegetables, pea, opium, coriander, barley, strawberry and oat), Kharif (urad, cotton, maize, onion, vegetables, ginger, rice, moong, sorghum, pearl millet/bajra, finger millet/ragi (cerealAll the mentioned information’s purpose is to provide details about the crop name, variety, yielding, and basic queries.

We provide the following services:

1) Rabi Crops: Rabi crops are winter crops. They’re harvested in October or November. In the spring, the crops are harvested. Because they are cultivated in arid locations, these crops need constant watering. Rabi crops cultivated in India include wheat, gramme, and barley.

2) Kharif Crops: Rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet/bajra, finger millet/ragi (cereals), arhar (pulses), soyabean, groundnut (oilseeds), cotton, and other crops are grown during the kharif season. Wheat, barley, oats (cereals), chickpeas/gram (pulses), linseed, mustard (oilseeds), and other crops are rabi crops.

3) Vegetable plants — a vegetable is more clearly defined as “any plant, a portion of which is utilised for food,” with a secondary definition being “the edible component of such a plant.” A more specific definition would be “any plant component used for food that is not a fruit or seed, but includes ripe fruits eaten as part of a major meal.”

4) Herbal Plants — Herbs can occur in a variety of forms, including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (cambium), resins, and pericarp. Herbs have many cosmetic applications, including face creams, scrubs, lipsticks, natural scents, and body oils.

5) Phal Phool Tree — Fruit cultivation covers numerous crops, but the most common fruits are mango, banana, grapes, amla, apple, walnut, almond, plum, dates, guava, kinnu, lemon, lime, and mandarin oranges. Orchid Tree (Kachnar), Lady’s Slipper, African Marigold, Lotus, Palash, Golden Shower tree, Lilium candidum, Siroi lily, Red Vanda, Rhododendron, Ashoka, Rohira, Noble orchid, Glory lily, Ranawara, and Nag Kesar are the most common crop names.


We hope this blog on seasonal variation has taught you something new, and if you’d like to learn more about comparable topics, please contact us at any time. The Kisaan Helpline would gladly assist you in any way!



Kisaan Helpline is India’s largest Agri Inputs Marketplace Platform providing a wide choice of quality inputs to farmers at their doorstep.

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Kisaan Helpline

Kisaan Helpline is India’s largest Agri Inputs Marketplace Platform providing a wide choice of quality inputs to farmers at their doorstep.